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Consequently, the four oldest small scapulars are likewise the badges of four confraternities, attached respectively to the Carmelites, Servites, Trinitarians and Mercederiansy.Later on the Franciscans gave the members of their third order for the laity the large scapular, and founded also a Franciscan confraternity the members of which were given as their badge not a small scapular, but a girdle.

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It was regarded as a great grace and privilege to be able to die and be buried in the monastic habit, which was frequently given to the dying or placed on the deceased before burial.

In the revised statutes of the Oblates of the Benedictine Order, confirmed in 18, it is stated in conclusion: "The Oblates may be buried in the black habit of the order, with scapular and girdle, wherever the conditions allow the fulfilment of this pious wish". Francis of 1221 (also in that of 1289), the investment is fairly exactly described, but there is no mention of a scapular. Dominic in the first half of the thirteenth century prescribed likewise a formal and complete investment. As in the case of the other third orders this made its appearance later, until finally it became usual to wear the scapular under one's ordinary clothing instead of the full habit of the order.

It was thus natural to term the scapular jugum Christi (the yoke of Christ ); it was also called scutum (shield), as it was laid over the head, which it originally covered and protected with one portion (from which the hood afterwards developed). Perhaps even the small scapular of the confraternity (that for the laity ) may be suggested, since the reference is to persons coming from the world ( novices ) who should have this small scapular.

Small nighttime scapulars In the rules of the religious it is expressly prescribed under penalties that even at night the scapular must be worn, e.g. For night the Carmelites have now a special smaller scapular which, however, is still much larger than the so-called great scapular of the Third Order of St. 33 v.) it is appointed that each candidate of the order must bring with him his bed and in addition: "habeat etiam cum rauba sua parvum scapulare cum tunica ad jacendum" (cf. It is likewise prescribed in the Constitutions of the Servites of 1257 "quod nullus accedat sine scapulari et tunica dormitum". Benedict had declared in his Rule XXII: "Vestiti dormiant et cincti cingulis aut funibus", it was prescribed in the "Consuetudines sublacenses": "Vestiti autem dormiant id est ad minus in una tunica et scapulari et cincti ut sint parati surgere" (Albers, "Consuet. This scapular thus appears to have been a portion of the night clothing of monks.

It was now that these confraternities developed into scapular confraternities in the modern sense.

On account of the scapulars the faithful resorted ever more to these confraternities, especially after they had heard of the wonderful graces which members had received through the scapulars, and above all when the story of the apparition of the Blessed Virgin and of her promise to all who wore the Scapular of Mount Carmel faithfully until death became known.

For these large scapulars the same general rules hold good as described in detail below in the case of the small scapulars.

It is especially necessary that persons who desire to share in the indulgences and privileges of the third orders shall wear the scapulars constantly.

Here are some things about Germany and its inhabitants I have noticed during my time spent here, living in Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Weiden in der Oberpfalz, Bavaria and Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein.

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