Native american dating line

S., about half of which are associated with Indian reservations.

At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants.

Some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than the Europeans were familiar with.

The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips' 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology.

They divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases; see Archaeology of the Americas.

The Clovis culture, a megafauna hunting culture, is primarily identified by the use of fluted spear points.

Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, New Mexico.

These early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.

The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus' voyages of 1492 to 1504, in practice the term usually includes the history of American indigenous cultures until they were conquered or significantly influenced by Europeans, even if this happened decades or even centuries after Columbus' initial landing.

Native American cultures are not normally included in characterizations of advanced stone age cultures as "Neolithic," which is a category that more often includes only the cultures in Eurasia, Africa, and other regions.

Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations.

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