Dating oosteuropa

Farm women are most often classified as "unpaid family workers"; farmers are thought to be male, while farm women are seen as "farmers' wives", even when they share equally in decision-making and farm operations.

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This was accomplished through the development of modern intensive agriculture, with its concomitant environmental and social problems, and through changes in the agrofood system and in consumer demand which have given rise to new nutrition, food safety and equity concerns.

More than a decade before the 1996 World Food Conference, in 1974, both Western and Eastern Europe had achieved sufficient food supplies to ensure an adequate diet for all citizens.

Much of women's contribution to the agrofood system takes place in the domestic sphere where it goes largely unrecognized because it is not measured.

Food-related activities within the household, such as food purchase, preparation and serving, are still predominantly female activities.

The resulting farming model was characterized by scale enlargement, specialization, intensification and integration in the agro-industrial food chain.

These "vanguard farms" are strongly dependent on external capital, inputs, knowledge and labour, and are vulnerable to changes in market, price, trade, environmental and structural policies.

Farm women are also affected by more global socio-political and economic changes which have specific impacts on gender relations, but they are also affected as farmers, farm family members and rural workers and citizens per se.

This chapter first addresses the global adjustments occurring in agrofood systems in Europe and the ways in which people are being affected as consumers, farmers and rural workers.

As a result of the transition in Eastern Europe, many women who were state farm workers or cooperative members only a few years ago are no longer employed in agriculture, while some who worked outside agriculture now find themselves farming.

In Western Europe, many women from farm households work only off-farm, others have migrated to urban areas, many others combine on- and off-farm work and some are engaged in activities such as agrotourism which have little to do with actual on-farm production.

This chapter focuses on how farm women are being affected by the transformations that are taking place in both Eastern and Western Europe and on their actual and potential contributions to achieving the broad goals of these transformations.

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