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After the invasion of Poland in 1939, the regime set up ghettos to segregate Jews.

The second half of the 19th century saw the emergence in the German empire and Austria-Hungary of the völkisch movement, which was developed by such thinkers as Houston Stewart Chamberlain and Paul de Lagarde.

The movement embraced a pseudo-scientific racism that viewed Jews as a race whose members were locked in mortal combat with the Aryan race for world domination.

Universities dismissed Jewish faculty and students. German pharmaceutical companies tested drugs on camp prisoners; other companies built the crematoria.

The Germans set up six extermination camps in Poland: Auschwitz-Birkenau (established October 1941); Majdanek (October 1941); Chełmno (December 1941); and in 1942 the three Operation Reinhard camps at Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka.

was a genocide during World War II in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 19. Following Hitler's rise to power in 1933, the government passed laws to exclude Jews from civil society, most prominently the Nuremberg Laws in 1935.

Starting in 1933, the Nazis built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and people deemed "undesirable".

Donald Niewyk and Francis Nicosia, in The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust (2000), favour a definition that focuses on the Jews, Roma, and Aktion T4 victims: "the systematic, state-sponsored murder of entire groups determined by heredity.

This applied to Jews, Gypsies, and the handicapped." The logistics of the mass murder turned the country into what Michael Berenbaum called "a genocidal state".

The second focuses on the systematic mass murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between 19; this acknowledges the shift in German policy in 1941 toward the extermination of the Jewish people.

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